Carbon based nanostructures for energy storage
Materials can be made from several types of elements, either in the pure elemental form or in the form of compounds and composites.Generally, bulk materials can be classified broadly as metals, semiconductors, and insulators. And when any of these materials is produced in the nanometer scale, each displays shape-/size-dependent properties. These new properties have the potential to provide enormous opportunities for both scientists and engineers to create many novel applications that are normally not possible with conventional bulk materials. Many of the nanometer-scale properties (e.g., size, shape, surface structure, and chemical composition) have only been deciphered since the advent of advanced microscopic techniques, which has enabled researchers to precisely measure and directly visualize materials at the atomic scale in real time, something impossible just a few decades ago.And, even more impressive is the ability of these characterization techniques to give us a glimpse of materials and processes in their own localized micro-/nanoscopic environment. The nanometer-scale materials had different and remarkable properties originated with the discovery of buckminster- fullerene (C60 or buckyball) in 1985. Subsequent studies ultimately led to the discovery of several other forms of exotic carbon structures, such as carbon nanotubes (CNTs; both single wall and multiwall), intercalated CNTs, carbon nanohorns, and recently graphene. These discoveries spurred researchers worldwide to actively investigate other nanometer- scale materials, especially those with inherently novel properties that could be proprietarily secured via trademarks and patents.Today, the range of elements and compounds successfully synthesized in nanometer-scale forms, characterized, and even deployed as commer- cial products include Metals, Metal oxides, Polymers, Semiconductors, Carbon compounds.The paper presents the processing and properties of different types of nanomaterials. In addition,the methods for the synthesis of different types of 1 D carbon nanotubes (CNTs) by the catalytic chemical vapour deposition (CCVD) technique by the pyrolysis of suitable hydrocarbons over selective alloy hydride catalysts and the processing of 2D.