EFFECTS OF NEONICOTINOIDS IN SOIL AND WATER IN AGRICULTURAL FIELDS: A REIEW
Neonicotinoids insecticides are neurotoxic systematic insecticides used in agricultural field for the crop protection. Neonicotinoids kills not only the insects also kills the pests and had a great threat to the pollinators. These includes acetamiprid, thiacloprid,nitenpyram, imidacloprid, dinotefuran, thiamethoxam and clothianidin. Most of the neonicotinoids are persistent and have high leaching runoff potential in soil. Because of these characteristics, neonicotinoids leads to affects the surface water, ground water, flora and also less effects on the fauna and human beings. This review suggests the toxicity amount of neonicotinoids and also the acute and the chronic effects. The above and below limits of concentration of these insecticides in soil and water may causes the acute and the
chronic effects respectively. These are mainly detected with the help of HPLC or else LCMS. Neonicotinoids are not easily biodegradable, the variety of bacterial community are used to reduce the concentration of neonicotinoids in step by step process. Due to these ill effects, most of the country restricts to use these insecticides and created many law to use heir limits. These review are informative to the risk assessment of neonicotinoids in the soil and water in agricultural fields.